History of Sibi district of Balochistan.
The History of the district center chiefly round Sibi, or as it was sometimes written, Siwi which owing to its position at the mouth of the Bolan Pass has always been place of considerable importance and has figured prominently in the annals of the country. cut off from the rest of Baluchistan by belts on intervening hills, Sibi itself during the earlier part of its history appears to have followed the fortunes of Kachhi and Multan rather than those of Khurasan. In the older maps the country between the Bolan Pass and the Derajat is marked as Sewistan, but this name has been now passed out of common use among the natives of Balochistan and authorities differ as regards the accurate defination of its boundires. It is difficult at this period to arrive at any correct solution, as alterationsin the course of the Indus river have modified the local divisions of territory, districts have become intermingled and names have been inaccurately applied in the narratives of the earlier Writers. It is held that the name of Sewistan is erroneously given to this part of the country, which was a dependency of the extensive province of Sewistan of Tatta or Sindh. The name however has been generally adopted in earlied histories and in the absence of conclusive proof th the contrary, it would seem desirable to retain it. All local traditions assert that the former rulers of this part of the country including Kalat were Hindus who were called Sewas. As history shows that Muhammadan dynasties have held Baluchistan from about the Seventeenth century, an earlier period must be looked for the date of these Sewas and it is not improbable that they were connected with the Rai Dynasty of Sindh whose genealogical tables include two rulers named Sihra.
A tribe known as Sibi or Sibia is mentioned in the histories of Alexander’s invasion of India, but beyond a similarity of names there is nothing to show that they were connected with the modern town of Sibi. Prior to and at the time of the rise of islam, Sibi seems to have formed a portion of an extensive Hindu kingdom on the Indus, which at the time of its first contact with the Arabs was ruled over by Sihra Rai, whose capital was Alor a populous city near Bhakkar. This monarch was killed in Makran in a battle with Arabs and after the death of his successor Sahsi, the kingdom passed into the hands of rai Chach, the Brahman who ruled Sindh for forty years. Chach is said to have marched from Armabela ( apparently Bela ) through the Jhalawan country to Kandabil ( possibly the modern Gandava), and to have afterwards encamped on the banks of the river Sini or Sibi which may be identified with the Nari of the present day. He is described as having compelled the inhabitants of this part of the country to pay him a tribute of a hundred horses and a thousand Durhams of money.
First Muhammadan invasion in 711 A.D.
The first Muhammadan invasion under Muhammad Bin Qasim the Arab general of the Caliph Walid, took place during the reign of Dahir, the son of Chach. The seizure of an Arab ship at a Sindh and conquered the country up to and including Multan.
Second Muhammadan Invasion in 978 A.D.
In the interval that elapsed before the next Muhammadan invasion nothing is known of the history of the district but at the beginning of the eleventh centruy, Sibi and the neighbouring country formed part of the Ghaznivid empire under Sultan Mahmood Ghaznvi, who captured Multan in 1004 A.D.
Year 10004 A.D.
In the time of Nasiruddin Kabacha who assered his independence in Sindh during the reign of Altamash, the slave king of Dehli, Sibi is mentioned as forming one of the seven kingdoms of Sindh tributary to Multan and as being ruled by Rana Wakija son of Punnun Channun, a petty Muhammadan feudatory of Hindu descent.
YEAR 1250 A.D.
The subsequent history is obscure but about 1250 the town of Sibi and its dependencies are said to have been held by Rai Sihra, the head of the Langah tribe of Multan who according to Tod, were Hindus by descent and a branch of the Solanki Rajputs but according to native writers a branch of the Jats. In the confusion which followed the withdrawal of Timur after the sack of Delhi, Multan became independent under the Langahs and Sibi seems to have been recognized as a dependency of that province though the actual possession appears to have alternated between the rulers of that province and those of Kandahar.
Year 1470 A.D.
In 1470 Sultan Hussain Mirza of Herat is said to have made over the territories of Shal ( Quetta) Pushang ( Pishin ) and Sibi to Amir Shujauddin Zunnun, the Arghun but according to the Ain-i-Akbari the “Siwi Fort” was conferred as a fief in 1488 on Shah Beg, the son of Shujaudin Zunnun by Jam Nizamuddin of Sindh generally known as Jam Nanda.
Arghun Dynasty 1511 A.D.
About 1511 Shah Beg marched against Sibi to resume his fief and captured the town after a severe struggle. After rebuilding the Fort, which he strongly garrisoned, Shah Beg returned to Kandhar.
Mirza isa Tarkhan Year 1554 A.D.
Panri ( panni) Tribe of Sibi
Mughals Rule of India
Nawab Bakhtiar Khan Barozai in Year 1700 A.D.
Kalhora Dynasty of Sindh 1712 A.D.
Nadir Shah 1739 A.D.
Durrani Dynast 1747 A.D.
British Arrival 1839 A.D.
Anglo Khajjak Battle 1841
Around 1500 it was taken by Shah Beg of the Arghun Dynasty from Samma Dynasty of Sultan Of Sindh and so came under the control of Kandahar.
However, during the period of Mughal rule the territory was once again ruled from Multan.
In 1714 the territory was conquered by the Kalhoras Amirs of Sindh, but they were then displaced by the Durranis. During the short rule of the Durranis the local administrators were nominated from the Barozai Sub clan of the Panni Tribe.
In the 19th century it fell under Marris and Bugtis hand. To finish rebellion in the area as raised by Marri & Bugti Tribes, the British signed the treaty with Khan of Kalat in late 19th century where under the Sibi, Shalkot and Chagai territory leased out to British India.
The District of Sibi was established in 1903 during British Rule its area was larger than the current district and lay between 27°55′ and 30°38’N and 67°17′ and 69°50’E lying south of Loralai District, north of the Upper Sind Frontier District, west of Dera Ghazi Khan District and east of Kachhi, Bolan Pass and Quetta- Pishin.
The total area of the district was 11,281 square miles (29,220 km2), but this included Marri Bugti county (7,129 square miles) which not directly administered by the British, leaving 4,152 square miles (10,750 km2) that were directly administered by the British The population according to the 1901 census of India was 74,555 or 18 persons per square mile.